This newsletter contains links to content located on external websites.
Over time it is likely that some of the links to this content may be broken.
You are advised to download material of interest as soon as possible.
(#24 / 2018 - 28 August 2018)
In 2017 Lesotho exported US$4.2m worth of garments (HS61 & 62) to the EU
In 2017 Lesotho exported US$298.7m worth of garments (HS61 & 62) to the US
In 2017 Lesotho exported US$128.5m worth of garments (HS61 & 62) to South Africa

Workers in Lesotho’s textile, apparel and footwear manufacturing industry have won significant wage increases ranging between 21% and 37.4%. The wage of a qualified sewing machinist in the country will rise from M1,456 a month (US$102) to M2,000 (US$141) a month.

On 23 August 2018 the Lesotho government, after five months of indecision, decided to implement adjustments to workers’ minimum wages with effect from 1 September 2018. The minimum wage hike comes after a bruising battle involving government, a coalition of trade unions, and the Lesotho Textile Exporters’ Association (LTEA). In August alone more than 9 days of work was lost through wildcat strike action – and in some instances by the country’s police ordering that factories remain shut.

Lesotho has a system of minimum wage setting whereby usually employers and (not necessarily representative) trade unions meet to discuss what the minimum wages should be. The parties to these discussions then make a recommendation which is forwarded to the Wages Advisory Board; who, after deliberation, makes a recommendation to the Minister of Labour & Employment (MoLE) - the Minister makes the final decision. Adjustments to the minimum wage are typically made with effect from 1 April of each year.

There would be nothing to stop trade unions, after minimum wages have been set, from returning to enterprises to engage in plant level collective bargaining in order to top-up state set minimum wages with additional wages and other improvements to working conditions.

The settlement could have been worse for employers. It is rumoured that in early August 2018, the Lesotho government had apparently agreed that the minimum wage for any textile, apparel and footwear worker should be set at M2,000 a month. Obviously wages for more skilled employees and those with longer service would have received proportionately higher wages. The minimum wages set would also have been backdated to 1 April 2018. One company, which prior to the high drama had been looking at establishing manufacturing operations in Ethiopia, estimated that a backdated settlement would have cost it in excess of M20m (US$1.4m).

Apparently, the current minimum wages of all sector workers will be adjusted annually over the next two years so that every worker in the industry will receive a guaranteed minimum wage of M2,000 a month by April 2020.

The settlement affects approximately 45,000 textile, apparel and footwear workers engaged in about 55 manufacturing units. Approximately 30,000 of these workers are engaged in enterprises that focus on making garments for the US market in terms of the African Growth & Opportunity Act (AGOA).

Politely put – the situation is a mess. It is predicted that many factories - especially those focusing on the US marketplace will complete their existing orders while simultaneously looking for new African (possibly Asian) investment destinations. Lesotho will hemorrhage jobs.

There will be more analysis of this wage adjustment on the next edition of the "African Cotton, Textiles & Apparel Monitor" newsletter.
With effect from 1 September 2018

Berg River Textiles, a woven textiles manufacturer, has agreed to pay a fine of R6,170,045 (US$433k) after it was found by the country’s Competition Tribunal to have engaged in a collusive conduct with Eye Way Trading in contravention of the Competition Act. Berg River Textiles and Eye Way were referred to the Tribunal for prosecution on 10 August 2016. The Commission uncovered that Berg River Textiles and Eye Way colluded with each other when bidding for two separate tenders issued by the Department of National Treasury for the supply of fabric used in the manufacture of uniforms to the Department of Correctional Services, the South African Air Force and the South African Military Health Services. Berg River Textiles (which has now been closed) was owned by the stock exchanged listed Deneb; who in turn is controlled by the stock exchange listed HCI – the Southern African Clothing & Textile Workers Union (SACTWU – South Africa’s largest textile and apparel trade union) is a significant shareholder in HCI. READ HERE >> and for the full Competition Tribunal ruling SEE HERE >>

It would be interesting to see if the executive managements of Deneb and/or HCI have instituted any disciplinary action against the managers who engaged in the collusive tendering activities or who had knowledge of it. The fine must be hugely embarrassing for SACTWU as it is a union that has (correctly in my view) campaigned that state procurement purchases should be 100% South African made.

Eye Way Trading is still challenging the Competition Commission ruling in the Competition Appeal Court. The company refers to itself as a "Tender Management Service Provider" or a "Tender Management Company".

Recently (January 2017) another South African textile firm making the same types of fabrics as Berg River Textiles was also embroiled in a tender price rigging scandal. Da Gama Textiles was very lucky to get away R2,1m (US$148k) fine (in my view a slap on the wrist!) for engaging in price collusion practices when bidding on state fabric contracts
READ HERE >>. Motseng Trading, which colluded with Da Gama, paid a fine of R200k (US$14k) … a tap on the wrist! Monoge Mining, also involved in the collusion, has not yet had its punishment confirmed.

It would be good if the companies engaged in these practices are not only fined by the Competition authorities – but that the companies (and their senior managements) are prohibited from tendering for other state contracts for a period of time.

Zambia projects to harvest 120,000 tonnes of cotton this season; in the last harvest only 55,000 tonnes of cotton was produced. READ HERE >>

Zimbabwe’s cotton exports are projected to increase by up to 240% this year, on the back of anticipated solid performance by one of the key sectors primed to generate more foreign currency, according to the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe. This year, at least US$85 million is expected from ginned cotton from US$25 million earned last year in the last season. READ HERE >>

The East African Community had given itself up to 2019 to begin stopping the importation of second hand clothes from the United States. In 2016, the presidents of Kenya, Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda and Rwanda said taking the move would protect their textile and leather industries. It did not take long before things began falling apart. First, the Secondary Materials and Recycled Textiles Association, a US lobby, argued that the ban would amount to a trade barrier, violating the African Growth & Opportunity Act (AGOA). READ HERE >>

The Egyptian government has set the total value of a plan to modernize the state-owned textile sector at LE24bn (US$1.4bn), which may still increase. The plan includes modernisation of the Cotton & Textile Industries Holding Company and more than 30 other affiliated companies, under the supervision of the Ministry of Public Enterprise Sector. READ HERE >>

The National Planning Commission is forming an economic advisory council that will regularly assess critical challenges in the economy and endorse policy amendments. Formed under the Planning Commission, the advisory council will have a bi-annual or tri-annual meeting with the Prime Minister, to discuss its findings and to make recommendations. In past years, the business community has been forwarding multiple issues as a challenge. Among these are a lack of access to land and financial resources; a weak tax administration system; and, policies and regulations imposed by the government that have limited the ability of banks to give credit, according to a recent report presented by the president of the Ethiopian Chamber of Commerce & Sectoral Association, to the governor of the Central Bank. READ HERE >>


The Southern African Clothing & Textile Workers’ Union (SACTWU) has settled its 2018 wage negotiations for the clothing sector. This comes after three rounds of ordinary negotiations, the declaration of a dispute, and two conciliation sessions to attempt a settlement of the dispute. The agreement covers just over 60,000 clothing workers, employed in 745 factories nation-wide. The final settlement involves a two-year agreement. The effective implementation date for the first year of the agreement is 1 September 2018, and for the second year it will be 1 September 2019. During the first year, clothing industry workers in the metropolitan areas of South Africa will receive a 7.5% wage increase and workers in the non-metropolitan (more rural) areas will receive an 8% package increase (of which 7.5% will go on wages and 0.5% to improve employer contributions to worker retirement funds). The second year wage increase will be the Consumer Price Index (CPI) as at November 2018, plus an additional 1%. In the event of CPI plus 1% resulting in the total labour cost increase being less than the Rand value increase for 2018, the adjustment shall be the Rand value equivalent of the 2018 total labour cost increase. Agreement was also reached that time-off requests for SACTWU Office-Bearers to attend constitutional meetings of SACTWU and of COSATU shall not be unreasonably refused.

The Southern African Clothing & Textile Workers’ Union (SACTWU) has settled its 2018 wage negotiations in the non-woven textile sub-sector. The agreement was reached under the auspices of the National Textile Bargaining Council with the National Textile Manufacturers’ Association (NTMA). The settlement is a two year agreement and workers in this sector will receive a 7.25% wage increase for both years. Increases are due on 1 July each year. This year’s increase will be backed dated to 1 July 2018.
Source: SACTWU Press Releases 27 August 2018 (SEE >>).

The R6.9bn (US$483.9m) impairment of Australian department store chain David Jones knocked Woolworths into a loss of R3.5bn (US$245.4m) for its 2018 financial year, from a profit of R5.4bn (US$378.7m) in the prior year. What Woolworths calls its "fashion, beauty and home" division suffered a 1.5% decline in sales and 4% decline in gross profit. "Our womenswear modern range failed to resonate with our core customer," Woolworths CEO Ian Moir said in the results statement. "In Woolworths fashion, beauty and home, we have made a number of changes to structure, process and product offering to effect improvement in our womenswear ranges." READ HERE >> and READ HERE >>

The government of Tanzania is urging smallholder farmers to acquire insurance covers for themselves as well as for their crops. READ HERE >>

As the world’s largest standard for sustainable cotton from Africa, Cotton made in Africa (CmiA) now certifies around 40% of the cotton produced by smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Demand from the textile industry for CmiA cotton is up on the previous year by around 79%. And the trend is set to continue in 2018. Additional companies now on board with CmiA initiative include Tendam Global Fashion Retail from Spain, Vlisco from Holland and Gudrun Sjöden from Sweden. Around 1,033,500 smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa are currently working with CmiA and growing cotton in accordance with the CmiA sustainability criteria. The Vlisco Group, the Dutch creator of original, high-quality textiles for the Central and West African markets, is now an official partner of the initiative. Vlisco group factories in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire already use significant quantities of CmiA cotton in the production of the Uniwax, GTP and Woodin brands; the Dutch-produced Vlisco brand will follow suit as of 2019. “Working with CmiA fits perfectly with our strategy of doing more in Africa, for Africa, not to mention giving us a unique opportunity to make real a difference with regard to corporate social responsibility”, said Vlisco’s Director Sourcing and CSR. READ HERE >>

Sudan used to be a major supplier of cotton around the world, but in recent decades, production has experienced a sharp decline due to disease and pest damage. In 2010, Chinese experts went to Sudan and helped to develop a new cotton varieties. After years of trials the new cotton varieties now covers more than 90% of Sudan’s cotton plantations; and they benefit over 200,000 growers. New Epoch was launched in Sudan in 2012. It invests in cotton production and processing as well as marketing. Its cotton ginning factory has an annual production capacity of 15,000 tonnes of lint cotton. The project manager said this year the company planted 10,000 hectares of cotton, and they plan to grow 60,000 hectares of cotton in the next few years. READ HERE >>

The National Minimum Wage Bill was approved by the National Council of Provinces and will now go to President Cyril Ramaphosa to be signed into law. The adoption of the bill, along with enabling the Basic Conditions of Employment Amendment Bill, was welcomed by the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) as a step that would see the income of 6.4m South Africans increase. "This will be a major cash injection into workers’ pockets," COSATU said and went on to thank Ramaphosa for his "unflinching support" for the measure that will introduce a minimum wage of R20 (US$1.40) an hour. READ HERE >>

ThreadSol plays a crucial role in the apparel industry, especially in Africa with the emergence of the industry. The company’s presence at Origin Africa establishes its commitment to sustaining its efforts of introducing innovative garment technology solutions for the apparel industry. ThreadSol aims to introduce technologically driven products to drive African apparel manufacturing by boosting topline and bottom line for manufacturers and differentiate from the extremely competitive environment for breakthrough profits and improved customer service. READ HERE >>

UGANDA – BT COTTON, 20 & 25 August 2018
When confined field trials for insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant Bt cotton started at the National Semi Arid Resources Research Institute (NaSARRI) with support from the US-based Monsanto in 2006, researchers thought farmers would no longer worry of pesticides and weeds in the garden. The trials were carried out in two cropping seasons of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 in the traditional cotton growing areas of Serere in the East and Kasese in the south-western Uganda. Though preliminary findings confirmed positive results, the trial that was meant to be conducted in three cropping seasons came to a halt citing absence of bio-safety laws and regulations. Parliament passed the bio-safety bill in October 2017 but it was returned by President Yoweri Museveni two months later with a request to address numerous concerns. Faced with this dilemma, researchers now say the government seems to have missed the opportunity to utilise the technology to boost cotton export volumes and the recovering of the local textile industry. READ HERE >>

On 19 July 2018 an online publication, the “Genetic Literacy Project”, carried an article with the headline: ‘Uganda’s textile industry declines while its neighbors embrace GMO cotton’. The article reported that Uganda’s lint production in the 1970s exceeded 450,000 bales but in recent years the highest amount produced was barely 250,000, occasionally dropping to 100,000 bales (a bale is 185kg). “Due to lack of correct information some people think that if we grow GMO cotton it will destroy other crops and the environment,” said the Cotton Program Leader at Serere Research Station. “However, our research findings have proved that GMO cotton is cheaper to grow, it has higher yields, and it does not affect other crops or the environment in any way. Political leaders should understand that other countries like South Africa, Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya, among many others on the globe, have turned to GMO cotton.” READ HERE >>


"Textile & Clothing Industries can Drive Africa’s Industrialisation"
Vanessa Moungar (Director of the Gender, Women & Civil Society Department at the African Development Bank) and Emanuela Gregorio (Economist - Gender and Innovation). 22 August 2018. Source: SEE >>

As the African Development Bank (AfDB) celebrates World Fashion Day, we take this opportunity to reflect on the potential of the fashion industry to create value and wealth across the continent, with women and youth at the heart of this change.

We believe that the textile and clothing industry can drive Africa’s industrial transformation and create some of the millions of jobs we need. A stable future depends on the development of labour-intensive sectors like manufacturing, services and agriculture. Within the manufacturing sector, the Bank knows that job creation “from new activities” such as fashion, design, film and food industries – also known as creative industries - will result in new trade patterns for African countries.

These creative industries are particularly attractive to increasingly interconnected youth eager to explore wider cultural frontiers through social media and the internet. They bring their African culture and creativity as a unique selling point: creative industries bring economic benefits, as well as serve as a vehicle to further African regional integration and identity.

Today, let us focus on Fashion.

The textile and clothing industry presents a lot of potential for value added benefits and job creation. It is estimated that up to 600% of value can be created along the cotton value chain: from cotton production, spinning and twisting into yarn, to weaving and knitting into fabric, followed by dying, printing and designing. The fashion industry is a very profitable sector, from production to marketing, and additional jobs and wealth can be created every step of the way. Furthermore, this industry is composed of a majority of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), which can rapidly generate decent jobs - both skilled and unskilled - especially for youth and women.

According to UNIDO, in communities across the world, women have protected and nurtured rich cultural value and traditional designs. Investing in developing their skills to generate revenue in these areas leads to greater economic productivity and independence with social and political benefits for their communities. Since women are actively engaged throughout the fashion value chain, we see great potential for economic empowerment in rural areas as well as in urban centers.

In addition to value-added benefits and job creation, we see this particular sector as a great means to foster local content and identity. As Africa embraces industrialization, it must fully engage its human capital and unique craftsmanship. To fully take advantage of the regional and global value chains, each economy needs to enhance its infrastructure, regional integration, policy environment and access to finance.

Incoming investments must engage local actors and artisans to leverage the diversity of African regions and enable long term, structural change. To date, most of the textile and clothing value chain remains in the informal sector. There is tremendous opportunity for development actors to provide these businesses with the necessary infrastructure to transition to the formal economy by supporting their incubation, increasing access to finance, and connecting them to other producers, suppliers and retailers.

Demand for African textiles and garments is increasing globally, and African patterns are gaining recognition as truly fashionable and iconic pieces. International fashion houses are integrating more and more African influences in their latest collections.

International textile manufacturers are turning to Africa as a new source of labour – and – as a growing consumer market. Africa is clearly and quickly taking on a greater role in the global fashion value chain, and it must rapidly industrialize to take advantage of it. Instead of exporting raw materials vulnerable to market volatility, and importing second hand clothes, we must add value to everything we produce, and export finished fashion products.

Ethiopia is a great example. With the objective of generating US$30bn in export revenue from the textile apparel and accessories (TA&A) sector by 2030, the country is investing in industrial parks to accelerate textile production and the country’s productivity as well as developing a heavy industry that will allow its full industrialization by 2025. According to the AfDB’s “Fashionomics Africa” report (READ HERE >>), almost 80% of the workers employed in Ethiopia’s apparel sector are women. In addition to Ethiopia, the garment sector has been growing in South Africa, Mauritius, Madagascar and across North African countries - but much of the rest of the continent has a long way to go.

The AfDB is working through targeted approaches to foster value chain development. Consider Madagascar, where the Bank invested about US$10m to support the textile industry through the Investment Promotion Support Project. This project includes a US$2m Textile Sector Promotion Support Fund that provides technical assistance to 50 MSMEs (40% led by women) for building organisational capacity and to improve basic processes and technologies.

We continuously raise awareness on strategic sectors for investment, as well as support the Bank’s regional member countries. The TA&A industry must engage in policy dialogue to improve the business environment, facilitate access to finance and build institutional and actor capacity, to succeed.

In this context, the Bank is also rolling out its Fashionomics Africa initiative. Already active in Cote d’Ivoire, Nigeria, Kenya, South Africa and Kenya, Fashionomics Africa (SEE >>) is a pan-African program that aims to strengthen the value chain of the fashion sector, by investing in the African textiles, apparel and accessories industry and raising its profile on the international stage. The goal is to connect and strengthen each link in the chain, from producers and suppliers of primary materials, to manufacturers and distributers, and of course, investors. With a focus on MSMEs, Fashionomics Africa seeks to foster an environment that creates quality employment and entrepreneurial opportunities, with increased access to finance, startup incubation and acceleration, particularly for women and youth.

One of the components of the initiative is the Fashionomics Africa Masterclass, intended to equip entrepreneurs and designers with the tools to build and establish a fashion brand, from idea to execution. More than 500 textile, fashion and accessories entrepreneurs have participated in Masterclasses in Nigeria, South Africa and Ethiopia. Some 65% of trainees have been women.

The AfDB will continue to ramp up its support to the fashion industry, so that it can make its full contribution to the growth of our economies, as well as give Africa its rightful place in the global cultural and creative landscape.

I tend to think that many African Fashionista’s over-emphasise the job creation aspects of fashion projects - especially those at the couture end of the spectrum. The reality is that when African designers hit upon something unique - its often appropriated by Western Corporations and the products are made in factories outside of the continent. It would be really interesting seeing an objective exogenous review of the AfDB's fashionomics programme.

“African Fashion Doesn’t Need Another Fashion Week or Vogue, it Needs Customers” (June 2018)
“Like any good garment, the structure beneath is important and right now African fashion doesn’t have a pattern to support a commercially viable industry.”
“Too many designers still struggle to find a reliable customer base in their countries, which in turn means they struggle to raise the capital to produce next season’s collection. It’s something of a chicken-and-egg situation.”


“Can You Build a Fashion Business With a Manufacturing Base in Africa?” (February 2017)
“And yet — expansive production, especially at the higher end of the market — still seems extraordinarily difficult to accomplish on the continent — if not impossible — with commonly known challenges such as unstable infrastructure, the bog of bureaucracy and a lack of information on how exactly to do it.”
“It’s also difficult to train artisans to make something that they’ve never made before, which means many brands must manufacture in several countries at once in order to achieve the desired results. That’s an expensive (and logistically mind-numbing) task, so it’s no surprise that few have attempted it. There was $815m worth of apparel imported from Sub-Saharan Africa into the United States in 2015, down 5% from the year previous.”
“And yet, Africa remains an intriguing option for some fashion companies eager to commission work from skilled artisans, either for aesthetic (trends), or ethical reasons (job creation).”


“Putting Africa on the Fashion Map” (May 2015)
“Yet there is one region that still remains on the fringes of this otherwise global business: Africa.”
“Brimming with culture, creativity, talent, ambition and natural resources, but plagued by poor infrastructure, poverty, corruption, protectionism, bureaucracy and political instability, Africa is anything but straightforward or monolithic. And herein lies the most fundamental issue of all.”
“The very notion of an ‘African market’ can be misleading. Unlike the European Union, the 55 distinctive countries that make up the African Union are not economically integrated as a single common market. With over 50 different trading and legal conventions, ten overlapping regional blocs, a dozen climate zones and 2,000 spoken languages, this is a highly fragmented and precarious region, whether you’re sourcing, producing, selling or doing anything else along the fashion value chain. But it is one with scale and potential like no other.”
Lesotho continues to be the second largest exporter of apparel to the United States in terms of the African Growth & Opportunity Act (AGOA). Kenya is the largest sub-Saharan African garment exporter using AGOA. The recent minimum wage hike may make many of the firms producing for the US market place look for other manufacturing destinations.
2001 to June 2018

FOR 2017
TABLE TOP 10 LESOTHO KNIT GARMENT EXPORTERS TO THE US       [This image can be seen if you enable

FOR 2017
TABLE TOP 10 LESOTHO WOVEN GARMENT EXPORTERS TO THE US       [This image can be seen if you enable

Chinese Manufacturing Moves to Rwanda: A study of Training at C&H Garments”. Janet Eom. School of Advanced International Studies, John Hopkins University. Washington DC, United States. Paper No. 18. August 2018.

Synopsis: As a small, landlocked country with few natural resources, Rwanda has focused on becoming a knowledge-intensive business and technology hub rather than a labour-intensive manufacturing base. But in 2015, a Chinese garment manufacturing firm, C&H Garments, began operations in Kigali. This paper by Janet Eom finds that the Rwandan government’s shift towards creating jobs in the manufacturing sector, and implementation of requirements for training and hiring local workers, have been key to negotiating an agreement with C&H Garments that supports technology transfer to Rwandans. In the process, this case demonstrates how African governments can require foreign investors to implement skills transfer programs to facilitate structural transformation. However, the C&H factory has also faced obstacles, including cultural and linguistic differences; this paper suggests the exchange of African managers between countries may help. Finally, this study holds significance given that the Rwandan government’s desire to boost local manufacturing capacity has been at the center of recent trade tensions between Rwanda and the United States under the African Growth & Opportunity Act (AGOA). The full paper can be READ HERE >> and the executive summary can be READ HERE >>.
  • International Textile Manufacturers' Federation (ITMF) - Annual Conference - 7-9 September 2018. Nairobi, Kenya. For more information:
  • Origin Africa – Trade Show - 9-11 September 2018. Nairobi, Kenya. For more information:
  • Apparel Sourcing Paris - Trade Show - 17-20 September 2018. Paris, France. For more information:
  • International Cotton & Textile Conference - Conference & Trade Show - 27-29 September 2018. Koudougou, Burkina Faso. For more information: SEE HERE >>; but also SEE HERE >> and SEE HERE >>
  • Africa Sourcing & Fashion Week (ASFW) - Trade Show - 1-4 October 2018. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. For more information:
  • Maroc Sourcing 2018 - Trade Show - 11-12 October 2018. Marrakech, Morocco. For more information:
  • Textile Exchange Sustainability Conference - Annual Conference - 22-24 October 2018. Milan, Italy. For more Information:
  • Destination Africa - Trade Show - 17-19 November 2018. Cairo, Egypt. For more information:
  • ATF Expo - Trade Show - 20-23 November 2018. Cape Town, South Africa. For more information:
  • 77th Plenary Meeting - International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) - Annual Conference - 2-7 December 2018. Abidjan, Ivory Coast. For more information: and SEE HERE >>
  • Sourcing at Magic - Trade Show - 4-7 February 2019. Las Vegas, United States. For more information:
  • Morocco Fashion & Textile - Trade Show - 28-31 March 2019. Casablanca, Morocco, For more information:
  • Source Africa - Trade Show - 12-14 June 2019. Cape Town, South Africa. For more information:
Looking for staff? Want to engage a consultant? Have equipment to sell? Do you need 2nd hand machinery? Have a tender? For a limited period the "African Cotton, Textiles & Apparel Monitor" will publish (free of charge) select classified advertisements from firms / development organisations active in the Africa's crop to shop value chain. Adverts limited to 50 words / 300 characters (and may include a mini logo).
I get repeated requests from environmental and labour compliance auditing bodies for in-country staff who can assist them with translations when they are undertaking in country audits. If you know of any individuals/organisations who could undertake these kinds of services kindly let me know their details. Country, language competencies, names, contact details please.
about Mark Bennett - Editor

"The African Cotton, Textiles & Apparel Monitor"
I have almost 30 years' experience working in Africa's cotton, textiles and apparel value chain. Initially I was, for 15 years, a sector trade unionist in South Africa; then, from 2004 onwards, I worked as a development consultant for various Southern / Eastern African governments, and domestic private sectors. In my development activities I have been engaged by private sector foundations, and by DFID and USAID funded contractors. I find it rewarding creating development interventions that help cotton, textiles and apparel stakeholders to better processes, improve productivity, increase sales and add investment. See my full CV at Devex or LinkedIn.
Copyright © *|CURRENT_YEAR|* *|LIST:COMPANY|*, All rights reserved.
The views expressed in this newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views of the editor.

My mailing address is:

Want to change how you receive these emails?
You can update your preferences or unsubscribe from this list

If you would like to subscribe to the newsletter you can also do so by visit the website

©2017 ACTAM