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(#15 / 2018 - 26 June 2018)
In 2017 Mauritius’ exports of textiles (HS50-60) to South Africa was worth US$21.8m – mainly knit fabrics valued at US$11.9m
In 2017 Mauritius’ exports of apparel to South Africa was worth US$126.8m – knit garments worth US$65.6m, and woven garments valued at US$61.2m
In 2017 South Africa’s exports of textiles (HS50-60), and apparel (HS61-62) to Mauritius were respectively worth US$4m and US$4.4m
Mega projects help the economic development of a country and benefit society, and some of these projects extend their benefit beyond and transform society. Among such projects is the Hawassa Industrial Park (HIP). The park, whose construction was finalised in nine months, accommodates 52 factory sheds. The HIP acting General Manager told visitors from various parts of Ethiopia that the park had already created 17,000 job opportunities in 17 months, and that he envisaged that a total of about 60,000 jobs would be created as more firms occupy premises. READ HERE >>

Global brands are increasingly eyeing Kenya to source their apparel as the garment and textile sector rebounds after many years of decline. The Kenyan Tailors & Textile Workers Union (TTWU) is organising workers and winning good agreements in this growing industry. The United Aryan factory (SEE HERE >>, located in a Nairobi export processing zone, gets orders from H&M, and makes jeans for Levi’s. The factory’s 2,800 workers are all members of IndustriALL Global Union affiliate the TTWU, which has entered into a closed shop agreement - meaning that workers who are hired by the company become union members. READ HERE >>

The new e-commerce company formed through the merger of Superbalist and Spree may use its scale to compete against global firm Amazon, which is increasing its presence in South Africa. Naspers subsidiaries Media24 and said they would merge their respective online fashion brands, Spree and Superbalist, to create an e-commerce behemoth called FashionCo. Derek Engelbrecht, the retail sector leader at EY, said "the move in the local market is no doubt seeing whether they could compete, should Amazon decide to pull the trigger … as Amazon is what most retailers benchmark the quality of their strategic vision against". READ HERE >>

Several cotton farmers in Checheche, one of the country’s largest cotton growing area in Manicaland Province, are dumping contract schemes run by private merchants saying they have long been short-changed through inadequate supply of inputs. READ HERE >> and READ HERE >>

The Zimbabwe Asset Management Corporation is in talks with Merlin Limited shareholders over a possible bailout that will assist the company to acquire new equipment to operationalise its new business model and clear outstanding legacy debts. Although no official figures have been revealed, sources say the deal is close to conclusion and that a creditors’ meeting would be called soon to bring closure to sticking matters that have stalled the revival of the giant textile firm. The company requires at least US$30m in the next five to 10 years to revamp the whole factory. A recently filed a High Court application filed by the firm’s judicial manager is seeking to dispose of obsolete and non-core assets to raise additional working capital. READ HERE >>

Algeria’s largest textile factory, Tayal (a joint Turkish-Algerian enterprise) announced that it is now exporting cotton yarn products to Turkey. READ HERE >>

Falke's two South African factories have survived the meltdown in the local textile industry in the 2000s by developing a niche market. The local operation produced over 12m pairs of socks and fine hosiery in 2017, and has increased its workforce by over 50% in the past 10 years. Its now planning to expand to Australia. The company's biggest challenge is keeping up with local demand, and finding the right skills to operate its machinery. READ HERE >>

The Cotton Board of Zambia's executive director stated that Zambia expects to produce over 120,000 tonnes of cotton in 2018. Cotton, which is known as white gold in the farming circles, has current prices on the international commodity markets now fetching about US$1.83 per kg, meaning that Zambia will earn over US$220m as the crop is grown mainly for export. READ HERE >>

Cotton production in Senegal registered a 52.1% decline in the first four months of 2018, compared to the same period last year, according to data by the Textile Fibers Development Company (SODEFITEX). The total production during the period amounted to 6,400 tonnes, against 13,363 tonnes during the first four months of 2017. READ HERE >>

Mozambique eyes a 200,000 tonnes seed cotton output by 2020. This milestone would set a new record since the 1972/1973 season, when the harvest reached 144,000 tonnes. READ HERE >>

In February 2018 South Africa’s Competition Tribunal confirmed that two companies in the country’s textile value chain – Berg River Textiles and Eye Way Trading – colluded when bidding for two tenders issued by the country's National Treasury for the supply of fabric used to manufacture uniforms for the then Department of Correctional Services, the South African Air Force, and the South African Military Health Services. READ HERE >> It has now been learnt that both companies have commenced processes to appeal the verdict in the Competition Appeal Court.

The original verdict of the Competition Tribunal must have been embarrassing for the Southern African Textile & Clothing Worker’s Union (SACTWU) – as they are significant shareholders in the corporate pyramid that owns Berg River Textiles (Johannesburg Stock Exchange listed – Deneb, and also HCI). Their embarrassment being that they had campaigned (correctly in my view) that fabrics bought by public procurement system must be 100% made in South Africa - only to find that a company they had an investment interest in had (allegedly) attempted to rig the tender system in its favour. Berg River Textiles has, subsequent to the Competition Tribunal finding been closed, with some of its operations been consolidated into the Hextex textile facility located in the South African town of Worcester.
Should anyone want a copy of the appeal applications filed by Berg River Textiles kindly write to

Several farmers across Lesotho are stuck with unsold wool and mohair after the recent regulations that that blocked the fibers from being processed and auction out of the country. Some of the farmers who have tonnes of the fabric stashed in wool shed have expressed concern that they may end up starving as they have failed to sell the commodity. The farmers registered their fears during the ongoing awareness campaign by the ministries of agriculture, small business and trade in Thaba Tseka. The Ministers of the three ministries are part of a cabinet subcommittee set up by the government to resolve the disputes between the farmers and their partner in the Lesotho Wool Centre, Stone Shi. On 4 May 2018 Lesotho Agriculture Minister torched a storm when he gazetted the Agricultural Marketing (Wool & Mohair Licensing) Regulations 2018, which state that no one will be allowed to trade in wool and mohair without a license from the Ministry of Small Business, Cooperatives & Marketing. READ HERE >>


According to a newspaper report most initiatives trading on Nelson Mandela’s legacy have lofty aims and are virtuously pitched at consumers. The "must-have" T-shirt to commemorate the 2018 centenary of Madiba’s birth will be sold on a similar basis. The company that produced the T-shirt [Trade Call Investments Apparel - TCIA], in partnership with the Nelson Mandela Foundation, depicts the garment as one to "inspire the fight for social and economic transformation". In South Africa, proponents of that slogan are puffed up with pride, but the T-shirt fabrics originates in a factory in Mauritius, owned by the Southern African Clothing & Textile Workers’ Union (SACTWU), which is vociferously committed to supporting local goods — the lifeblood of its members. READ HERE >>

The yarns were spun at Mauritius' Tianli Spinning; while the fabrics used to make the T-shirts were knitted and finished at another Mauritian firm - Star Knitwear.

Its ironic that the textiles for this initiative have come from Mauritius – when they could easily have come from a number of, compliant with labour laws, South African factory.

On 9 May 2018 Trade Call Investments Apparel (TCIA) stated the following related to their Mandela T-shirt initiative:

“The 1 Million T-Shirt Campaign is the official #mandela 100 t-shirt. In partnership with the Nelson Mandela Foundation, Trade Call Investments Apparel are the proud manufacturers of the t-shirt celebrating the centenary Year of Nelson Mandela in 2018/2019. The unique t-shirts depict an image of Mandela’s face and consisting of 240 words associated with his vision, wisdom and legacy. The cotton for the t-shirts is grown in Malawi, Madagascar, Tanzania, Zambia and Mozambique and the t-shirts are made in South Africa. Take a look at an overview of the launch on the 23rd of April 2018. #Mandela100 #bethelegacy #buylocal #supportlocal”. SOURCE >>

The TCIA poster advertising the Mandela T-shirts that pops up on their website states that "The cotton is grown in Africa and the t-shirt is manufactured in South Africa". A "Wear South African" logo is appended to the TCIA poster. The "Wear South African" brand, an in-house brand of TCIA READ HERE >>, claims on its website:
"Wear South African (WearSA) is a movement driven through the collective vision of a local network of honest, passionate South African fashion industry activists striving to make a difference through design, manufacturing and retail in the Clothing & Textile Industry. ... Our purpose is to grow and sustain the local manufacturing sector by creating a sustainable design model that supports ethical sourcing. ... By successfully achieving our expansion goals over the next 3 years, WearSA will create additional employment for more than 500 South Africans whilst assisting in sustaining thousands of others. The business priority has never been focused on bottom line profits, however WearSA’s commercial success story is merely the by-product of a strong commitment to achieving our purpose."

TCIA’s use of the #hashtags “buy local” and “support local” are, in the context of the production processes used to make this Mandela garment, just WRONG! If TCIA appeals for some sense of economic nationalist / local pride in the future how many people will believe their sincerity.

When I was employed by SACTWU (yes - I have Bolshevik roots) I would have been asked: "Comrade Mark - calculate how much fabrics (and yarns) would have been used to make these t-shirts. Then calculate how many jobs would have been created / sustained if these textiles had been made in South Africa."

With the Mandela T-shirts estimated to been made with between 300 to 400 tonnes of textiles - I should imagine that its production could have sustained quite a number of direct textile worker jobs in South Africa's beleaguered textile (spinning-knitting-dyeing/finishing) industry.


The Southern African Clothing & Textile Workers’ Union (SACTWU) – South Africa’s largest trade union organising textiles and apparel workers - has significant investments in the regional Southern African textile and apparel manufacturing (and branded licensed apparel) industry. Many thousands of workers must be employed by the operations that it owns, or in which it has a shareholding.

Its major wholly owned investment is an apparel manufacturing group called Trade Call Investments Apparel (TCIA) – which has clothing manufacturing units in South Africa (located in Cape Town, Ladysmith and Durban); and, a related knit fabric and garment manufacturing operation in Mauritius (Star Knitwear Group). SACTWU, at one time, also had a stake in a significant garment manufacturing in Lesotho (Nyenye Clothing). SACTWU also owns a workwear manufacturing company called Zenzeleni Clothing which is located in South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province.

SACTWU also has a stake in a Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) listed company called HCI. Through this vehicle SACTWU also has significant textile interests in a company called Deneb (also listed on the JSE) whose subsidiaries include: i) the Textiles Division: Winelands Textiles, Frame Knitting Manufacturers (FKM), Romatex Home Textiles, and First Factory Shops; ii) the Industrials Division: Integrated Polypropylene Products, and Brits Non-Wovens; and, iii) a Branded Products division: Brand ID (which holds licenses for a range of sports/apparel brands such as Canterbury, Dunlop, Slazenger, Speedo, Columbia, Jonty’s Cambridge); and children focussed home textiles.

It is surprising that since SACTWU has an interest in Frame Knitting Manufacturers SEE HERE >> that TCIA did not place an order for knit fabrics with this Durban based plant – or for that fact with any other capable South African fabric knitter (and there are plenty). The yarns used to make the knit fabrics could also easily have been made in South Africa.

SACTWU's investment arm has been very well managed. Far far better than some of the investment arms of other trade union affiliates of the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU). In some of these unions officials and senior worker leaderships are believed to have sought to improperly control their unions merely because it gives them extraordinary access to investment company resources.

I, generally, have few problems with unions running investment companies. These enterprises can play a vital role in protecting jobs in firms and industries where no other investors may be prepared to invest; in some instances the surpluses derived could be usefully reinvested in the union so that members receive benefits that they would not be able afford otherwise (e.g. educational bursaries, summer schools for their children, etc); they could initiate projects that members' union subscriptions would not normally be able to afford (e.g. they could engage private detectives who could investigate smuggling rings that undermine the industry that they operate in); etc.

Of course there are some potential negatives. Unions could, inadvertently, end up being a powerful employer in a sector where the union is supposed to be representing workers (e.g. what must a union do when its time for collective bargaining); while union connections to government may give some advantage in promoting industrial/mining/agricultural and trade policies and practices that merely support their own investments, etc. Sometimes even if the union / its investment arm are not engaging in improper activities the perception could be there that they are. In addition some of the managements of these companies may engage in practices that the union is, policy wise, against (e.g. procuring manufacturing isupplies made in establishments that do not obey labour laws, importing manufacturing inputs from foreign, but related, enterprises when there are good enough national suppliers of the same inputs, etc).

In a previous edition of the "African Cotton, Textiles & Apparel Monitor" (#13 of 12 June 2018) it implied that it was perhaps unlikely that some of the cotton lint used to make the Mandela T-shirt had come from Madagascar. The Mauritian firm that made the yarns used to make the fabrics that ultimately became Mandela T-shirts - Tianli Spinning - has advised that they have been buying lint from Madagascar since 2012. They advised that in 2017 they purchased around 2,000 tonnes of Madagascan cotton lint, and that from the beginning of the new harvest season in 2018 that they had already brought 260 tonnes.


The “Cotton Initiative” was originally raised both in the World Trade Organisation (WTO) General Council and the agriculture negotiations by Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad and Mali (known as the "Cotton Four" or "C4"). The proposal described the damage that the four believe had been inflicted on them by cotton subsidies in richer countries. They called for the subsidies to be eliminated, and for compensation to be paid for as long as the subsidies remained in place in order to cover economic losses caused by the subsidies.

Just over a year after it was first proposed in 2003, a Cotton Sub-Committee was set up under the Agriculture Committee’s “Special Sessions” in the WTO. The 2004 WTO General Council decision that created the sub-committee also directed that the General Council would also look at development issues related to cotton cultivation.

Cotton is thus discussed in the WTO in two tracks:
  • the trade reforms needed to address subsidies and high trade barriers for cotton which are handled by the “Committee on Agriculture in Special Session” including through dedicated discussions on trade in cotton
  • the assistance provided to the cotton sector in developing countries which are discussed in the meetings of the “Director-General’s Consultative Framework Mechanism on Cotton”.
The two key WTO web pages related to cotton are found HERE >> and HERE >>.

Trade in cotton:
Negotiations to reform trade in cotton take place in the Committee on Agriculture in Special Session. In addition, dedicated discussions on cotton are held twice a year for WTO members to share information on cotton trade.

Under the December 2015 Nairobi WTO Ministerial Decision on Cotton, developed countries and developing countries (in a position to do so) have committed to grant, to the extent provided for in their respective preferential trade arrangements, duty-free and quota-free market access for exports of cotton and cotton-related agricultural products from least-developed countries (LDCs).

The trade ministers also agreed that the decision to abolish agricultural export subsidies, as contained in the Nairobi Decision on Export Competition, would be immediately implemented with regard to cotton by developed countries - and not later than 1 January 2017 by developing countries. The Nairobi decision also acknowledges the efforts made by some WTO members to reform their domestic cotton policies but emphasised that more efforts were needed.

Dedicated discussions on cotton are held in the context of the Committee on Agriculture in Special Session. They rely on factual information compiled by the WTO Secretariat from notifications and other information provided by WTO members. The discussions do not constitute a negotiation process but are important in complementing negotiations on this topic. These dedicated discussions are an outcome of the December 2013 WTO Bali Ministerial Conference, where trade ministers agreed “to enhance transparency and monitoring in relation to the trade-related aspects of cotton” They also decided “to hold a dedicated discussion on a bi-annual basis in the context of the Committee on Agriculture in Special Session to examine relevant trade-related developments across the three pillars of Market Access, Domestic Support and Export Competition in relation to cotton”.

In the December 2015 Nairobi Ministerial decision on cotton, WTO members committed to continue holding dedicated discussions on cotton on a biannual basis and to monitor the implementation of the decision.

Development assistance aspects of cotton:
Discussions on the development aspects of cotton take place twice a year in a forum known as the WTO's “Director General’s Consultative Framework Mechanism on Cotton”. The main purpose of these discussions is to track developments and exchange information on development assistance provided to developing countries. This is recorded through the so-called “Evolving Table on Cotton”. Members are briefed in these meetings on the latest developments in the negotiations and the latest market conditions. The 2013 Bali Ministerial Conference and the 2015 “Nairobi Decision on Cotton” underscored the importance that Members attach to the development assistance aspects of cotton.


On 19 June 2018 the WTO held a series of meetings dedicated to cotton. The “African Cotton, Textiles & Apparel Monitor” will report on these meetings and also dive deeply into the wealth of data that they disclose. Readers will learn about the eye-watering amounts of development assistance that the global community has channeled into cotton development programmes throughout the world – the majority of which are in Africa.




The Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) of South Africa SEE HERE >> has, for a little over a year, been publicising the names of enterprises that it loans money to. It also identifies if any of the funding recipients are “prominent influential persons”.

The table below lists all those textile/apparel/home-textile/footwear firms that have concluded loan agreements with the IDC from April 2017 to around March 2018.
Source: Parliamentary Monitoring Group (PMG) SEE HERE >>

  • the above list of beneficiary firms excludes those who have received financial support via the Clothing & Textile Customised Programme (CTCP) READ HERE >> which is managed by the IDC on the behalf of the South African Department for Trade & Industry (DTI)
  • firms denoted with an * the South African government claims are the beneficiaries of the Black Industrialist Programme (BIP). The total amount they recived is R269.74m. On 4 November 2015 the South African government approved the Black Industrialists Policy. The purpose of the Black Industrialists policy aims to leverage the State’s capacity to unlock the industrial potential that exists within black-owned and managed businesses that operate within the South African economy through deliberate, targeted and well-defined financial and non-financial intervention. READ HERE >>
  • For a complete listing of all the recipients of BIP funding. READ HERE >> In looking at this list - released in response to a question from a parliamentarian on 4 June 2018 - both Chic Shoes and Glodina as being BIP beneficiaries.

What is interesting with the above IDC list of supported enterprises is that two of the firms are no longer operating. Apparently the shareholders of Chic Shoes decided to place the company into provisional liquidation on about 22 January 2018. It ceased all production at the end of January 2018 - a mere 44 days after the IDC paid over to it an amount of R9.2m. More on this plant, and its closure, can be read on the ultra informative "Shoes & Views" publication. READ HERE >> It is understood that the Glodina towelling plant (located in Hammarsdale (near to Durban), South Africa) is no longer operating either - in spite of it being loaned R185m (US$13.73m) at the end of September 2017. But more on Glodina and the IDC's interests in the towelling industry in the future.

Comment on Transparency
These transparency actions are good practices - hopefully they will be sustained going forward. It would be important if the IDC also considered providing the public with a complete listing of all value chain fund recipients for at least 10 years.

The current actions of the IDC in disclosing its loans of public funds should set an example that other national and provincial government ministries should follow when their Departments / parastatals use public funds to support firms in the textile and apparel value chain. In the textile and apparel value chain its possible that some firms may also receive public funding support from the:
  • South African Department of Trade & Industry (DTI) via its Clothing & Textile Competitiveness Programme (CTCP SEE >> - whose administration is with the IDC)
  • National Empowerment Fund (NEF SEE >> - which may soon be incorporated as a subsidiary of the IDC)
  • various South African Provincial Government economic development agencies
  • Sectoral Education Training Authority for the Fibre Processing and Manufacturing sector (FP&M - SETA SEE >>)
Manufacturing Subsectors: Clothing, Footwear, Leather & Textiles”. Trade & Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS). Pretoria, South Africa. May 2018.

Synopsis: This data driven piece summarises key data and information on the South African clothing, footwear, leather and textiles subsector up to December 2017. The report covers these industries: contribution to GDP, employment, profitability and assets, inputs market structure and major companies, major manufacturing inputs, its export and imports, etc. The data originates from a range of sources, mainly: Statistics South Africa; Quantec; and, "Who Owns Whom". The full paper can be READ HERE >>.

Trade Unions, the State and ‘Casino Capitalism’ in South Africa's Clothing Industry”. Nattrass & Seekings. In “Review of African Political Economy”, Vol43: Issue:147, pg89-106. December 2015.

Synopsis: Relationships between trade unions, the state and capital in South Africa have changed dramatically, especially in the clothing sector. The clothing workers’ union became heavily dependent on its political alliances with the governing party, not only for the regulation of wages and industrial policies, but also for Black Economic Empowerment policies that helped it to acquire massive shareholdings, including in the largest clothing manufacturer. In terms of both its exposure to capitalist risk and its investments in the casino industry specifically, the union acquired a stake in ‘casino capitalism’, whilst relying on government to stack the odds in its favour. The full paper can be READ HERE >>.

"A Reply to Trade Unions, the State and 'Casino Capitalism' in South Africa's Clothing Industry". John Copelyn (a former General Secretary of the Southern African Clothing & Textile Workers' Union, and the Chief Executive Officer of HCI). Cape Town, South Africa. May 2016.

Synopsis: Nattrass and Seekings have penned a highly critical piece on SACTWU, attacking virtually everything it is and does, including its trade policies, its affiliation to the Congress of South African Trade Unions, its investment company, and in particular its intervention into Seardel. This response contests many of the assumptions they make about the union and its approach to the world but perhaps more importantly seeks to shed some light on the collapse of the largest clothing and textile corporation in the country (Seardel) and the union’s attempts to rescue it from liquidation. The full paper may be read here READ HERE >>.

9 - 12 JULY 2018
The 17th session of the United States - Africa Trade & Economic Cooperation Forum will be held in Washington DC, 9-12 July 2018. Commonly known as the “AGOA FORUM”, the annual event normally consists of three components: the official Ministerial, the Private Sector session, and the Civil Society event.

Details of all the events can be seen accessed on the "AGOA.INFO" web site. SEE HERE >> Once you are on let yourself be drawn away from the AGOA FORUM page and ... take a trip around the rest of the website. Its a very good ... packed with all manner of detail about AGOA, and its beneficiary countries. It is the go to reference spot on the world-wide-web on AGOA. A recent legislative amendment in the US mandated its government to set-up its own AGOA website. They will, if they ever get around to it, have a hard time competing with the current AGOA.INFO website.

Some US administration websites that touch on AGOA include:
International Trade Administration’s (ITA) Office of Textiles & Apparel (OTEXA)
US Department of Commerce’s International Trade Administration (ITA)
US’ State Department
US Trade Representative (USTR)
US Customs & Border Protection (USCBP)
US Department of Labour – Bureau of International Labour Affairs (USDoL-ILAB)

I have been unfortunate enough to attend two AGOA FORUMS - they were a complete waste of time and of the donor money that got me there (although Accra is a nice city with really friendly people; and the Smithsonian museums are fascinating). I am sure that this year's FORUM will be the same. So if your government wants you to go, resist - if you are a garment manufacturer stay at home and run your business and make some money; if you are a textile unionist stay behind and intensify the campaign for a living wage; if you are a development worker find something to mainstream.
AGOA is very important - AGOA FORUMS are rarely of any value!

  • 14th Symposium of the Southern & East Africa Cotton Forum - Workshop - 4-6 July 2018. Harare, Zimbabwe. For more information: SEACF
  • Apparel Sourcing New York - Trade Show - 23-25 July 2018. New York, United States. For more information:
  • Sourcing at Magic - Trade Show - 12-15 August 2018. Las Vegas, United States. For more information:
  • International Textile Manufacturers' Federation (ITMF) - Annual Conference - 7-9 September 2018. Nairobi, Kenya. For more information:
  • Origin Africa – Trade Show - 9-11 September 2018. Nairobi, Kenya. For more information:
  • Apparel Sourcing Paris - Trade Show - 17-20 September 2018. Paris, France. For more information:
  • Africa Sourcing & Fashion Week (ASFW) - Trade Show - 1-4 October 2018. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. For more information:
  • Textile Exchange Sustainability Conference - Annual Conference - 22-24 October 2018. Milan, Italy. For more Information:
  • Destination Africa - Trade Show - 17-19 November 2018. Cairo, Egypt. For more information:
  • ATF Expo - Trade Show - 20-23 November 2018. Cape Town, South Africa. For more information:
  • 77th Plenary Meeting - International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) - Annual Conference - 2-7 December 2018. Abidjan, Ivory Coast. For more information:
  • Source Africa 2019 - Trade Show - 19-21 June 2019. Cape Town, South Africa. For more information:
Looking for staff? Want to engage a consultant? Have equipment to sell? Do you need 2nd hand machinery? Have a tender? For a limited period the "African Cotton, Textiles & Apparel Monitor" will publish (free of charge) select classified advertisements from firms / development organisations active in the Africa's crop to shop value chain. Adverts limited to 50 words / 300 characters (and may include a mini logo).
I get repeated requests from environmental and labour compliance auditing bodies for in-country staff who can assist them with translations when they are undertaking in country audits. If you know of any individuals/organisations who could undertake these kinds of services kindly let me know their details. Country, language competencies, names, contact details please.
about Mark Bennett - Editor
"The African Cotton, Textiles & Apparel Monitor"
I have almost 30 years' experience working in Africa's cotton, textiles and apparel value chain. Initially I was, for 15 years, a sector trade unionist in South Africa; then, from 2004 onwards, I worked as a development consultant for various Southern / Eastern African governments, and domestic private sectors. In my development activities I have been engaged by private sector foundations, and by DFID and USAID funded contractors. I find it rewarding creating development interventions that help cotton, textiles and apparel stakeholders to better processes, improve productivity, increase sales and add investment. See my full CV at Devex or LinkedIn.
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