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(#14 / 2018 - 19 June 2018)
Ethiopia’s exports of garments to the US were up 124% (US$30.1m) in the period Jan-April 2018 compared with the same period in 2017 (US$13.4m)
Ethiopia’s exports of t-shirts to the US surged by over 2,000% in the first 4 months of 2018; while its exports to t-shirts to the EU in the first 3 months of 2018 shrunk by 62.8%
Ethiopia’s exports of garments to the EU were down 32% (€6m) in the period Jan-March 2018 compared with the same period in 2017 (US€8.7m)
ZIMBABWE - AGOA, 18 June 2018
Bulawayo's Archer Clothing Manufacturers' efforts to push for more exports into the United States (US) were hampered by Zimbabwe’s ineligibility under the African Growth & Opportunities Act (AGOA), an official has said. AGOA was signed into law in 2000 to offer tangible incentives for African countries to continue their efforts to open their economies and build free markets. Archer managing director Jeremy Youmans stated that the country’s ineligibility in AGOA had made business hard to do in the US market. “Exports of clothing continue to grow in all markets. We are pursuing opportunities in the US, particularly for our casual wear and safari wear,” Youmans said. READ HERE >>

A group of businessmen from the United States, Germany, Turkey and Mozambique will invest US$150M in the installation of a textile factory in the northern Malanje province of Angola. This was announced after a consortium meeting with Angolan industry minister and the provincial governor of Malanje. The Chairman of the Board of Directors of TSG Global Holding on behalf of the businessmen, said that this project provides, in the first instance, would promote cotton production in Quela district. READ HERE >>

Benin’s cotton production reached a record 597,986 tonnes in 2017/18, up 32% from the 2016/17 season of 451,121 tonnes, and up 122% from 2015/16 season of 269,222 tonnes. The higher production volume was as a result of an increase in the areas planted (from 306,808 hectares to 530,145 hectares), and improved yields (877,48kg per hectare in 2015/16 to 1,128kg for the 2017/18 season). The Benin Council of Ministers indicated that nearly FCFA 93bn (US$166.8m) had been paid to cotton growers in the 2017/18 season.

For the 2018/19 season a further increase in cotton produced is anticipated. With additional production the Benin Minister of Trade & Industry has suggested that another ginning unit should be developed. Currently Benin’s annual ginning capacity (19 plants) is only 600,000 tonnes. READ HERE >>

East African Community (EAC) partner states, of Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda, have once again rebuffed Kenya’s push to remove restrictions on investors in Export Processing Zones (EPZs) which limits the amount of goods they are allowed to sell in the domestic EAC market place.

At the recently concluded EAC Sectoral Council on Trade, Industry, Finance & Investment in Arusha (Tanzania) meeting, partner states failed to reach consensus on the local market sales threshold. Kenya wants EPZ firms to sell a maximum of 49% of their output within the EAC Customs Union. Currently, EPZ producers are allowed to sell 20% of their total annual production within the EAC. Kenya says that this has compelled some investors to withdraw their multimillion-dollar investments from the country. Apparel producers in Kenya’s EPZ would be the biggest beneficiaries of a relaxation on domestic sales limits. READ HERE >>

The Lesotho National Wool & Mohair Growers’ Association (LNWMGA) and Maseru Dawning Trading have concluded a deal to develop the M40m (US$3m) Lesotho Wool Centre where wool and mohair will be sold directly from Lesotho to international buyers rather than via South African marketing channels as is now the case. The Lesotho Wool Centre is located in Thaba-Bosiu (near to the Lesotho capital of Maseru) and its main aim is to ensure that local farmers maximise the financial returns from the sale of their fibre which will now be sold directly to overseas spinning factories through an online auction system. The Agricultural Marketing (Wool & Mohair Licensing) Regulations 2018, which were gazetted by the Lesotho Minister of Agriculture & Food Security on 4 May 2018, state that no one will be allowed to trade in wool and mohair without a license from the Ministry of Small Business, Cooperatives & Marketing.

The new arrangements has resulted in some parties crying foul. One farmer, a member of the LNWMGA, has said that the new regulations will result into the loss of thousands jobs because local farmers will no longer sell mohair in a satisfactory manner. The farmer stated that wool and mohair farmers believe the regulations work against them. He claimed that the wool and mohair industry has 75,000 herders and 3,700 people in 148 sheering sheds around the country. READ HERE >> and READ HERE >>

In Tunisia, 26 companies in the food, leather, textile, chemical and mechanical sectors have been participating in a UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organisation) Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies programme for the southern Mediterranean. One of those firms is New Amico, a jeans manufacturing company founded in 1991 and located in the industrial zone of Moknine in north-eastern Tunisia.

The upshot of its participation was a technical cooperation agreement that saw New Amico purchase two G2 ozone-washer machines and three E-flow nano-bubbles technology machines for a total investment of €366,000 (US$430,000). Projections indicate that this initial investment will be recouped in less than a year as a result of the company’s reduced water, energy and chemical consumption. Nearly half of the savings will come from reduced water usage.

The new technology reduces the consumption of water by 98%, electricity by 47% and chemicals by 50%, and it eliminates the waste and waste water treatment associated with chemical and water usage because of its zero discharge process. Specifically, the use of the three E-flow machines will allow New Amico to reduce water consumption for washing jeans by 13 litres per piece. The impact of such technologies at national level would have an important impact on water consumption - Tunisia's annual production of denim clothing items stands at about 26m pieces per year. If the Jeanologia innovations were widely adopted by the Tunisian textile sector, water savings totaling 1.8m cubic metres could be achieved, equivalent to the annual water consumption of 6,000 Tunisians. READ HERE >>

The African Export-Import Bank (Afreximbank) says it will support Kaduna State (Nigeria) in the export of textile products to quicken the economic development of the state. The Bank advised that it would soon send a technical team to the State to conduct a comprehensive study of the State’s cotton value chain. READ HERE >>

The regional sub Saharan Africa secretary of the IndustriALL trade union federation has called upon African governments to develop sustainable policies that promote the development of the garment and textile sector. He said that international trade agreements should prioritise the interests of developing countries instead of promoting the dumping of used clothes on the continent.

According to IndustriALL - a significant proportion of whose affiliates are to be found in Africa’s textile and apparel industries – African states export cotton to Asia where it is spun into yarn and made into fabric from which garments are made and which are then sold to big brands in Europe and the United States. Charity and thrift shops then buy the clothes after they have been worn and discarded. On the bottom of the consumption chain are African countries that import bales of used clothes, and even underwear, for sale in the thriving informal markets common on the continent.

IndustriALL affiliates in Nigeria, Uganda and Zimbabwe are against importing used clothes as it threatens the growth of the garment and textile sector which suffered huge blows in the 1980s and 1990s with the adoption of the neoliberal International Monetary Fund/World Bank sponsored structural adjustment policies. They argue that the sector has potential to create jobs for hundreds of thousands of young women and other workers along the value chain. The unions also say cheap imports from China made locally produced clothes more expensive. READ HERE >>

When the rains are good in West Africa, cotton crops thrive. In those years, cotton farmers reap the rewards of a higher-risk cash crop and the local cotton company has more to sell. When drought strikes and cotton crops fail, farmers might have to sell off everything they own to pay back input loans. The alternative is to quit cotton entirely, a loss both for them and the local economy.

The Feed the Future Assets & Market Access (AMA) Innovation Lab at the University of California Davis has new results from pilot projects in Burkina Faso and Mali that tested how index insurance could promote resilience among cotton farmers at risk of drought. When drought struck in Burkina Faso, the insurance stepped in as a safety net, but in both countries farmers invested significantly more in their crops.




12 June 2018
Two senior representatives from South Africa’s Industrial Development Corporation (IDC – SEE>>) have addressed members of the South African parliamentary Portfolio Committee (PC) for Economic Development. In their presentation the IDC touched upon the challenges faced by country’s textile and apparel industry, and what the IDC has done to support firms to meet some of these challenges.

The IDC stated that its loan approvals to the sector have risen to R595m (US$44.3m) in 2018 compared to R434m (US$32.3m) in 2017, and R554m (US$41,2m) in 2016.
The IDC also noted that it manages the Clothing & Textiles Competitiveness Programme (CTCP) grant scheme on behalf of the South African Department for Trade & Industry (DTI) – the CTCP consists of two components, namely: the Production Incentive Programme (PIP), and the Competitiveness Improvement Programme (CIP). The IDC advised that the CTCP had disbursed R4.8bn (US$357.3m) as at 30 June 2017, for which it has, from a sample of 148 respondents, generated R2.8bn (US$208m) additional Market Value Added (MVA) and 4,600 additional jobs. Total firm assets have increased by R7.2bn (US$536m) - exceeding total CTCP disbursements by R2.4bn (US$178.7m) which indicates that the CTCP is leveraging private sector investment. The uptake in the PIP has, apparently, been funding of choice for the industry with IDC filling the role of funding working capital requirements.

The IDC revealed it had provided significant financial support to the value chain as many of the local banks would not do so because of the perceived risks presented by the industry. The IDC advised that as the sector had a high risk profile, and because it had to bail out many distressed companies, that the IDC’s textiles, apparel and footwear strategic business unit (SBU) had, relative to other IDC SBU, incurred high levels of impairments. They revealed that in 2016 the value chain’s impairments stood at over 54%; but that, as of March 2018, it stood at 33%.

Comments and Observations
Some of the questions that were raised by members of the Portfolio Committee were insightful:
  • one PC member commented that the apparel retail sector in Japan was generally made up with lots of smaller retailers as opposed to a few giant retailers. The issue of the high concentrations of ownership of the South African retail apparel and home textiles sector (aka the "softs" sector retailers) remains virtually untouched by any of the textile-apparel value chain development strategies that have been (or are being) developed in South Africa. Undoubtedly part of the distress that the South African textiles and apparel manufacturing industry faces is due to the significant power (manifested in their sourcing strategies) wielded by retailers in the softs sector
  • a spotlight was also shone on Da Gama Textiles (SEE >>) - a textile manufacturer backed by IDC funds (R80m - US$5.96m). One Committee member highlighted the fact that on a previous visit to the company by the Committee that she was shocked that it appeared that the company had put a significant gloss on a management diversification programme. It was good to see another PC member raise a concern that Da Gama had recently been fined by the country's competition authorities for price collusion on state tenders. The IDC responded that it had required the owners of the company to inject more equity into the company as IDC funds could not be used to pay the competition authority fine of R2.1m (US$156k)
  • there was some discussion relating to the IDC’s support for a new Chinese owned blanket factory (Yi Li Da SA Manufacturing (SEE >>)) in Germiston on South Africa’s East Rand. The IDC pumped in R55m (US$4.1m) in June 2017. It would be interesting to see what role the IDC played in ensuring this company ultimately started complying with the blanket Bargaining Council's minimum wages and terms and conditions of employment
  • a PC member asked what the IDC had done to publicise its successes in the industry. A valid point but it must be remembered that the IDC did have some value chain “darlings” – which it publicised with significant hype – which have recently failed without so much as a whimper (e.g. Impahla Clothing, Chic Shoes). The IDC needs to gloat about its successes – but then by the same token it must be merciless when companies fail through malfeasance / when its own IDC staff appointed to assist manage these companies take their eye off the ball / the bad decisions. Next time the IDC briefs the PC Committee the PC Members will be better briefed about the IDC's investments, including Opus One, Peter Blond & Associates, Trubok Clothing, Herdmans, etc.
There are many more questions that could have been raised by Parliamentarians mandated with oversight - especially with regards the IDC's existing sector loan portfolio. For example. How much money has the IDC written-off in the past five years due to its investments in the textile, apparel (and footwear) industry? In the past five years what amounts of value chain impairments have been converted into IDC equity? Has the IDC pursued any company owners (or their managements) that it has loaned money to, and which have completely collapsed, in their personal capacities as a consequence of any nefarious management?

If one digs back into the history of the IDC one would soon learn that South Africa's textile and apparel manufacturing industry, as we know it today, would not exist. The original management of the IDC took some very strategic decisions to develop a textile and apparel manufacturing industry. And this is the challenge that the South African policy makers face today.

Currently much of the work of the IDC relates to saving the dying and the wounded. Much like ER24 emergency ambulances services does - mopping-up the severely wounded, and the dying. I think it should continue in this role but it should do so with a more skilled set of IDC managers appointed to the management teams of companies being bailed out.

The IDC should also (once again) start to make a range of tactical investment interventions that will develop the entire value chain. For example like backing the development of additional competitive textile dying and printing operations / garment finishing plants (garment dye, wet finishing, garment printing, reduced water denim jeans finishing). With some of its research muscle it should also consider undertaking mini-value chain studies in the sub-sectors where it has a presence in order to figure out how its interventions could strengthen that entire (sub)value chain, e.g. in the toweling industry, in the home textile sector, in the spinning sector, etc.

The IDC has been a phenomenal force for good in South Africa's textile and apparel value chain - in the distant past and in more recent times. It still has a significant contribution to make by assisting poorly managed value chain companies; and to contribute towards shaping the long term future of parts of the value chain. But it does need to account to the South African public for some of its more spectacular failures - as it is public money that it manages!

One of the issues not touched upon by the IDC in their presentation has been their decision to, on a quarterly basis, publish a list of their loans to businesses in all sectors, and whether "politically exposed" individuals were beneficiaries of these loans. This is a welcome level of transparency. READ HERE >> The IDC, and the person(s) within the IDC that took this decision, should be very proud of this action. Hopefully they will continue with this initiative in the post "state-capture" world that South Africa now find itself in.

Now if only more South African government agencies and parastatals would publish the names of those enterprises that are awarded state / parastatal / local government contracts or are the recipients of state incentives it would be so much better. In my view it would certainly be interesting to know who are the textile and apparel recipients of CTCP funding, and how much each received; also, how much South Africa's Fibre Processing & Manufacturing (FP&M) Sectoral Education Training Authority (SETA) handed-out to specific recipients (and the connected training services providers); and, how much the various fibre, textile and apparel cluster initiatives funded by the DTI have received and that they have properly accounted for the funds that they have recieved.

From time to time it would be useful if government engaged independent consultants in order to undertake reviews of the efficacy of some of these publicly funded interventions.

Should anyone want a copy of the IDC’s power-point presentation (size – 1.2mb), and/or a copy of the MP3 audio of the meeting (size - 11.8mb), kindly contact

KENYA'S NATIONAL BUDGET 2018/19 (14 June 2018)


“ … during the East African Community (EAC) Pre-Budget Consultations meetings, we agreed on Customs duties aimed at promoting industrialisation, encouraging local investments, and creating incentives in the agricultural and manufacturing sectors. The measures are also intended to make our products more competitive while at the same time protecting local industries from unfair competition. … details of the Customs measures will be communicated through the EAC Gazette and implemented from 1st July this year.”

“… our textile and footwear sector are closing down due to increased unfair competition from cheap imported textiles and footwear as well as second hand clothing and footwear … to encourage local production … I have introduced a specific rate of import duty of US$5 per unit or 35% whichever is higher. This should guard against undervaluation.”

“ … the Government is committed to attract investors ... to facilitate investment by targeted investors, the Government will provide special fiscal incentives through a special operating framework arrangement that outlines the specific conditions and deliverables that are measurable and with specific timeliness that must be met … I propose to develop a framework to introduce special incentives in the VAT Act, Excise Duty Act, and Miscellaneous Fees & Levies Act, and provide a preferential tax rate under the Income Tax Act in order to encourage investments.”

“ … the Government is dedicated to support the manufacturing sector as a key pillar of “The Big Four” Plan … manufacturers have raised concern regarding the high cost of electricity. … in order to mitigate the cost of production, I propose to amend the Income Tax Act to provide a deduction of 30% of the total electricity bill by manufacturers from corporate profit in addition to normal deduction subject to the conditions to be set by the Ministry of Energy.”

“… we have cut the cost of off-peak power by half and we plan to implement modalities of bringing the cost of energy to about US cents 9 per kilowatt hour for selected investors. We are reviewing work permits to accommodate expatriates whose skills support our development agenda. We will continue to expand infrastructure and land access targeting manufacturing zones.

“… the specific incentives under the Special Economic Zones (SEZ) Act, and other special incentives, together with PPP arrangement will draw in investors into the manufacturing business. To catalyze this, the Government will provide the enabling infrastructure including building industrial sheds. To this end, I have allocated Ksh 0.4bn (US$4m) for the leather industrial park development and Ksh 0.4bn (US$4m) for textile development … to modernize facilities in RIVATEX … we have allocated Ksh 1.4bn (US$13.8m)


TANZANIA'S NATIONAL BUDGET 2018/19 (14 June 2018)


“Priority Areas for 2018/19. Industries: In a bid to stimulate industrial development, the Government will direct more efforts in the implementation of a ‘Blueprint for Regulatory Reform to Improve Business Environment for Tanzania’ in order to attract private sector investments particularly in textiles, leather … “

“… I propose to make amendments in the Income Tax Act … as follows:- (i) … to reduce the Corporate Income Tax rate from 30% to 20% for new investors in the Pharmaceutical and Leather industries for five years starting from year 2018/19 up to 2022/23. The Government will sign a Performance Agreement with investors to assign responsibilities of both parties. The measure is expected to promote investment in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical and leather products, create employment opportunities and increase Government revenue. Furthermore, it is also expected to save foreign exchange which is currently being used for the importation of these products.”

“ … to provide duty remission on a selected list of raw materials and industrial inputs for the manufacturer of textiles and footwear. This measure is aimed at accelerating the industrialisation process in the textile and leather sector and creating employment opportunities. The EAC Partner States have already submitted to the Secretariat a list of raw materials and industrial inputs to facilitate gazetting and implementation during the year 2018/19.”

“Laws Governing the Operation of Crop Boards: … require [Crop Boards] to deposit in the Paymaster General Account all fees and levies imposed on the sales of crops. The objective of this measure is to ensure that the revenue collected is properly accounted, effectively managed and utilised for the intended purpose. The Crop Boards operations and costs related to crop development will be financed from the Paymaster’s General account.”
[EDITOR: This will affect the Tanzania Cotton Board (TCB)]

“I propose to effect changes in the Fees and Levies charged by OSHA as follows:- a) Abolish fees imposed on application form for registration of working places; b) Abolish levy imposed on the registration of working places; c) Abolish fines related to fire and rescue equipment; d) Abolish OSHA compliance license of shillings 500,000; and e) Abolish consultancy fee of shillings 450,000”

“Government will continue to review various Levies and Fees imposed by Parastatal Organisations; Institutions and Agencies with a view to improving business and investment environment.”

Source: READ HERE >>




There is a new kid on the global textile and apparel manufacturing block - and that is Ethiopia. A question often asked is: what are the firms that are set up there actually currently making? A deep dive into Ethiopia's trade data reveals what their exporters are producing and exporting to the United States, and to the 28 Member States of the European Union.

Trace Data Sources:
US - obtained from the Data Web facility of the United States International Trade Commission.
EU - obtained from Eurostat.

HS Customs Tariff Codes:
Woven garments - are prefixed with the number "61".
Knit garments - are prefixed with the number "62".

The EU commodity descriptions have been edited in order to make the table easier to view. To see the full EU commodity description for each tariff code SEE HERE >>
Ethiopia Economic Update: The Inescapable Manufacturing Services Nexus - Exploring the Potential of Distribution Services”. Bezawagaw, Dihel, Geiger, Kelbore for the World Bank. Washington, D.C., United States. May 2018.

Synopsis: Ethiopia’s gross domestic product (GDP) growth is estimated to have rebounded to 10.9% in FY2017. According to official statistics, Ethiopia’s annual rate of economic growth, which averaged 10.3% over 2005/06-2015/16 (compared with the regional average of 5.4%), slowed to 8% in FY2016 due to drought-related lower agricultural production. The pursuit of prudent fiscal policy, with a fiscal deficit at 3.4% of GDP, should help keep inflation under control, providing monetary conditions remain tight in the aftermath of the devaluation of the Birr in October 2017. Key challenges relate to poor export performance (Ethiopia’s growth has been driven by investment followed by private consumption) and weak trade balance, which reflect the lack of external competitiveness and the vulnerability to terms of-trade shocks. The rising risk of external debt distress may affect Ethiopia’s access to external finance. These developments require continued policy adjustment to crowd-in the private sector and strengthen Ethiopia’s competitiveness.

This report contains a fairly detailed analysis of the challenges faced by domestic Ethiopian textile and garment manufacturers (see pages 72–75). The report notes that many domestic firms face stiff competition when entering the international market and they also face significant competition domestically from cheap imported clothing. The full paper can be READ HERE >>.

"Cotton: World Markets & Trade". United States' Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS). Washington, D.C., United States. June 2018

Synopsis: The report includes data on United States and global cotton trade, production, and consumption; as well as analysis of events affecting world cotton trade. Africa, as an important producer of cotton, features in the useful statistical tables. The full paper can be READ HERE >>.

9 - 12 JULY 2018
The 17th session of the United States - Africa Trade & Economic Cooperation Forum will be held in Washington DC, 9-12 July 2018. Commonly known as the “AGOA FORUM”, the annual event normally consists of three components: the official Ministerial, the Private Sector session, and the Civil Society event.

Details of all the events can be seen accessed on the "AGOA.INFO" web site. SEE HERE >> Once you are on let yourself be drawn away from the AGOA FORUM page and ... take a trip around the rest of the website. Its a very good ... packed with all manner of detail about AGOA, and its beneficiary countries. It is the go to reference spot on the world-wide-web on AGOA. A recent legislative amendment in the US mandated its government to set-up its own AGOA website. They will, if they ever get around to it, have a hard time competing with the current AGOA.INFO website.

Some US administration websites that touch on AGOA include:
International Trade Administration’s (ITA) Office of Textiles & Apparel (OTEXA)
US Department of Commerce’s International Trade Administration (ITA)
US’ State Department
US Trade Representative (USTR)
US Customs & Border Protection (USCBP)
US Department of Labour – Bureau of International Labour Affairs (USDoL-ILAB)

I have been unfortunate enough to attend two AGOA FORUMS - they were a complete waste of time and of the donor money that got me there (although Accra is a nice city with really friendly people; and the Smithsonian museums are fascinating). I am sure that this year's FORUM will be the same. So if your government wants you to go, resist - if you are a garment manufacturer stay at home and run your business and make some money; if you are a textile unionist stay behind and intensify the campaign for a living wage; if you are a development worker find something to mainstream.

  • Source Africa - Trade Show - 20-21 June 2018. Cape Town, South Africa. For more information:
  • 14th Symposium of the Southern & East Africa Cotton Forum - Workshop - 4-6 July 2018. Harare, Zimbabwe. For more information: SEACF
  • Apparel Sourcing New York - Trade Show - 23-25 July 2018. New York, United States. For more information:
  • Sourcing at Magic - Trade Show - 12-15 August 2018. Las Vegas, United States. For more information:
  • International Textile Manufacturers' Federation (ITMF) - Annual Conference - 7-9 September 2018. Nairobi, Kenya. For more information:
  • Origin Africa – Trade Show - 9-11 September 2018. Nairobi, Kenya. For more information:
  • Apparel Sourcing Paris - Trade Show - 17-20 September 2018. Paris, France. For more information:
  • Africa Sourcing & Fashion Week (ASFW) - Trade Show - 1-4 October 2018. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. For more information:
  • Textile Exchange Sustainability Conference - Annual Conference - 22-24 October 2018. Milan, Italy. For more Information:
  • Destination Africa - Trade Show - 17-19 November 2018. Cairo, Egypt. For more information:
  • ATF Expo - Trade Show - 20-23 November 2018. Cape Town, South Africa. For more information:
  • 77th Plenary Meeting - International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) - Annual Conference - 2-7 December 2018. Abidjan, Ivory Coast. For more information:
Looking for staff? Want to engage a consultant? Have equipment to sell? Do you need 2nd hand machinery? Have a tender? For a limited period the "African Cotton, Textiles & Apparel Monitor" will publish (free of charge) select classified advertisements from firms / development organisations active in the Africa's crop to shop value chain. Adverts limited to 50 words / 300 characters (and may include a mini logo).
I get repeated requests from environmental and labour compliance auditing bodies for in-country staff who can assist them with translations when they are undertaking in country audits. If you know of any individuals/organisations who could undertake these kinds of services kindly let me know their details. Country, language competencies, names, contact details please.
about Mark Bennett - Editor
"The African Cotton, Textiles & Apparel Monitor"
I have almost 30 years' experience working in Africa's cotton, textiles and apparel value chain. Initially I was, for 15 years, a sector trade unionist in South Africa; then, from 2004 onwards, I worked as a development consultant for various Southern / Eastern African governments, and domestic private sectors. In my development activities I have been engaged by private sector foundations, and by DFID and USAID funded contractors. I find it rewarding creating development interventions that help cotton, textiles and apparel stakeholders to better processes, improve productivity, increase sales and add investment. See my full CV at Devex or LinkedIn.
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