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(#12 / 2018 - 5 June 2018)
Tanzania’s exports of textiles yarns (HS5205) to the world in 2016 were worth US$11,6m
Tanzania’s exports of cotton lint (HS5201-02) to the world in 2016 were worth US$53.7m
Tanzania’s exports of textiles (HS50-60) to Kenya in 2016 were worth US$4.2m

The National Minimum Wage Bill, the Labour Relations Amendment Bill and the Basic Conditions of Employment Amendment Bill were adopted by South Africa’s Parliament on 29 May 2018. The adoption of the National Minimum Wage Bill was a major step in the process spearheaded by President Cyril Ramaphosa when he was Deputy President.

The National Minimum Wage Bill establishes the initial minimum wage at R20 (US$1.57) per hour, while the wage for domestic workers and farm workers will initially be set at R15 (US$1.18) and R18 (US$1.41) an hour, respectively, though these will be adjusted within two years of implementation. Provision is made for exemptions for employers who cannot afford the minimum wage, and sectoral wage determinations will continue. The new National Minimum Wage will also cover textile and apparel workers - even though many of these workers' minimum wages are covered by statutory instruments.

It was pointed out that R20 per hour was a starting point that would increase the income of about 6.6m workers now working below the national minimum wage. The proposal of a R12,500 (US$982) a month minimum wage made by the South African Federation of Trade Unions (SAFTU) was regarded as unrealistic and would harm the economy. READ HERE >>

The USAID East Africa Trade & Investment Hub (EATIH) SEE HERE >> supported four companies from Madagascar and Mauritius to connect with United States buyers at the recent Apparel Textile Sourcing show in Miami SEE HERE >>. The show attracts numerous mid-size buyers who are interested in the smaller-volume capacity that many East African companies offer. The Trade Hub's apparel advisor was pleased with the number of the linkages that the companies were able to develop and expects that those linkages will lead to orders READ HERE >>.

Massmart, owner of chain stores such as Makro and Game, is braced for more pain as its lower-earning customers are being left out of the country’s economic recovery. Massmart, which is a subsidiary of Walmart, indicated that it anticipated that interim earnings could fall around 70% to end-March 2018. Investors punished the company by pushing its shares down almost a fifth. Earnings were also hit by restructuring costs of about R166m (US$13.1m). "Whilst the positive impact of South Africa’s political renewal has been good for business confidence, there is little sign currently of any economic recovery among our lower-and middle-income consumers," said Massmart CEO Guy Hayward READ HERE >>.

Steinhoff Africa Retail (STAR) reported a 49.1% drop in headline earnings per share for the 6 months to end-March 2018. STAR’s clothing retail chains include: Pep, Ackermans, Dunns, John Craig, and Refinery.

STAR stated that the main reasons for the drop was its debt obligations to its management. STAR investors are still reeling from Steinhoff’s accounting scandal, and are set to fork out R500m (US$39.5m) to bail out executives whose remuneration was linked to the parent company’s share price. Steinhoff’s share price went into free fall in the first week of December when it admitted to "accounting irregularities". The news resulted in Markus Jooste’s immediate resignation as CEO

STAR revenue for the 6 months rose 15.9% to R33bn (US$2,6bn), while operating profit, before capital items, fell 2.9% to R2.7bn (US$213m). STAR described the 6 months as "very challenging" but regarded the removal of all cross guarantees funding pertaining to its Steinhoff majority shareholder as a "major milestone". Its Pep and Ackermans branded chain stores in aggregate reported 8.9% sales growth - this was partly supported by the opening of 80 stores on a net basis. Like-for-like sales growth was 3.5% READ HERE >> and READ HERE >>.

Meanwhile it has been reported that STAR is planning to distance itself from its scandal-ridden parent (Steinhoff) by changing its name back to the original “Pepkor”. The name change will have to be approved by shareholders. STAR’s CEO stated: "The historic Pepkor brands represent the vast majority of STAR’s current business and the corporate brand has enormous brand equity and a long legacy. The name change reaffirms the listed company’s independence” READ HERE >> and READ HERE >>.

South African shopping mall owners are bracing themselves for a sharp rise in vacancies because of the possibility of the Edcon group slashing its retail footprint by up to 500,000m/2 - a third of its existing space. As it stands, Edcon occupies around 1.5m m/2 through its Edgars, Jet, CNA and Boardmans brands, making it one of South Africa’s largest occupiers of retail space. It will shed space as leases come up for renewal. Edcon has lost substantial market share within key retailing categories. This is confirmed by the group’s latest sales growth figures, which show that Edgars and Jet have underperformed their peers, with sales falling by 6.7% and 6.3% respectively in the year ending March 2017. That can be compared with the 16.5% growth in sales at Pep and Ackermans, the 1.4% increase at Woolworths, and the 0.5% decline at Mr Price last year.

Edcon has also announced its recommitment to the “Edgars” brand after confirming that it would rename some of its non-core stores. Boardmans will become Edgars Home, Edgars Red Square will be Edgars Beauty, while Jet Mart will be absorbed into Jet and Edgars Active will be replaced by a new private-label youth brand READ HERE >> and READ HERE >> and READ HERE >> and READ HERE >>.

Mr Price has announced an increase in diluted headline earnings per share of 21.1%. CEO Stuart Bird said “this was a solid performance by a dedicated and talented team, who re-focused and delivered after the underperformance of the previous year.”

Total revenue rose by 8.0% to R21.3bn (US$1.67bn) with retail sales increasing by 7.6% (comparable stores 5.6%) to R20.0bn (US$1.57bn). Cash sales grew by 8.4% and constitute 83.7% of total sales, whilst credit sales increased by 4.1%. Online sales increased by 11.5%, with MRP Apparel, South Africa’s no.1 ranked fashion retailer on several social media platforms, recording growth of 31.9%. Local store sales were up 8.3% while non-South African store sales increased by 3.8%. Retail selling price inflation was 1.7% and 220m units were sold, an increase of 6.4%. Net trading space increased by 2.1%, and after opening 57 new stores the group traded from 1,258 corporate owned stores at year end READ HERE >>.

Although not yet officially announced, an Ethiopian media outlet has reported that the new Prime Minister has decided to remove the Governor of the National Bank of Ethiopia (NBE). According to the outlet sources at the NBE have stated that the Governors of the Bank have been cooking fake money supply statistics to show low levels of inflation and a healthy macroeconomic situation.

Ethiopia’s foreign exchange reserves are at an all-time low, with only enough to cover imports for two weeks. Speaking to the business community barely two weeks after he took office, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, said that the country’s foreign currency shortage will last for many years. Calling for more cooperation from the business community, the Premier said the forex crisis could take 20 years to resolve. The Premier encouraged the business community to transfer money they kept in foreign banks back to Ethiopia READ HERE >>.

In a related issue it has also been alleged that the same NBE’s Governor had given several guarantees of up to 100% of the foreign loans taken by EFFORT (an investment company closely allied to the Ethiopian ruling party – with significant investments in the textile industry) in spite of regulations that provide that no loan guarantees given by commercial banks can exceed 5% of their capital. Sources have stated that the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia, on orders the NBE Governor, had given several foreign loan guarantees of up to 100% to EFFORT READ HERE >>.
(NOTE: The “Endowment Fund for the Rehabilitation of Tigray” (EFFORT) was originally established to rehabilitate the war torn Tigray region of Ethiopia. In the past 25 years, because of its close connections to Ethiopia’s ruling party, EFFORT has emerged as one of the leading economic powerhouses. Its now an umbrella company for a group of businesses which are involved in major industrial activities in Ethiopia, such as banking and insurance, import and export, media and communication, construction, agribusiness, and mining and textile production. Having started with an initial capital of around US$100 million, EFFORT’s worth has now reached about US$3bn. For more on EFFORT READ HERE>>.

Foreign currency shortages will undoubtedly impact upon the Ethiopian textile and apparel manufacturing industry in a number of ways. Those local firms dependent upon foreign exchange to buy manufacturing inputs (cotton [Ethiopia is not self sufficient in cotton], fabrics, garment trims) and to upgrade their machinery will be especially badly affected. As will those firms that the Ethiopian government wants to bail out.

One only needs to look to what forex shortages are doing to textile and apparel firms in Zimbabwe.

The currency shortages also have another impact. It will prevent many firms from becoming full package garment manufacturers – forcing many to them become low cost, and hence low profit, cut-make-trim (CMT) producers. This is not an ideal situation for many firms to be in; nor a country with significant apparel industry ambitions.

The ambitious (and always missed) export targets of the Ethiopian government's central planners - which to a large part were dependent upon textile and apparel factories exporting huge volumes of apparel - would have been of little assistance to Ethiopian Central Bankers.

A delegation Ghanaian officials visited China to explore the possibilities of Chinese firms becoming involved in the growing and marketing of cotton in Ghana READ HERE >>.

Meanwhile a coalition of textile workers’ unions have stated that it looks like future retrenchments in the Ghanaian textile industry may not occur as they are optimistic new measures proposed by the Ministry of Trade will solve the challenges facing the local textile industry. One of the measures announced by the Ministry for Trade & Industry was to support companies with a stimulus package of up to 22m cedis (US$4.7m) READ HERE >>.

The Ghana Minister for Trade & Industry has announced that government institutions will soon be compelled to procure fabrics from local textile firms only. The move, according to him, is part of the measures being rolled-out by government to revive the country’s ailing textile industry. READ HERE >>.

The Minister has also revealed that in 2016 the country recorded only a single container containing textiles as having being imported into the country. Currently the combined production of the four local textile companies operating in the country does not exceed 40m yards of print annually, out of the 120m yards demanded – this reflects the high level of smuggling of textiles into the country and loss of revenue to government READ HERE >>.

The Managing Director of the Cotton Company of Zimbabwe (Cottco) has scoffed at Surface Wilmar’s proposal to take over 50% shareholding in the company, saying the company will not add value given its shallow background in cotton production.

Last week, Surface Wilmar (from Singapore) revealed plans to take over 50% shareholding in Cottco, and management control. It said that it was looking at investing US$100m in the cotton sector over the next five years. Its main aim in investing in Cottco is so that it can increase the supply of cotton seed oil to its Zimbabwe cooking oil division.

The Zimbabwe Government, which has been financing cotton production, has invested about US$130m over the past three years, helping the resuscitation of the industry that recorded the lowest output of 28,000 tonnes in more than two decades in 2015. Production increased to 74,000 tonnes last year. It is expected to further rise to 100,000 tonnes in 2018 READ HERE >>.

Morocco's textile and clothing sector recorded export growth of nearly 4% last year according to figures from the Moroccan Association of Textile & Clothing Industries. The country's exports reached MAD35.5bn (US$3.7bn) in 2017, representing a 3.8% increase on exports of MAD34.2bn (US$3.6bn) in 2016. Spain remained Morocco's largest market for textiles and apparel last year, with exports up 5% to MAD19.4bn (US$2.05bn). France is the second largest market, for which exports totaled MAD7.5bn (US$790m), an increase of 2% on the previous year READ HERE >>.

The Zimbabwe Textile Manufacturers’ Association (ZITMA) has appealed for a working capital and retooling bailout from Government. Vice chairman, Freedom Dube, said ZITMA was in the process of compiling the sector’s funding requirements before they approach the Government for assistance. The Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries has in the past raised concerns that most of the equipment in local companies was more than 40 years old and that it had outlived its lifespan. Among other facilities to stimulate export growth, the Zimbabwe Central Bank has come up with a US$20m export development facility for exporters in the manufacturing and horticulture sectors READ HERE >>.

The first meeting of the private sector with newly inaugurated Botswana President, Mokgweetsi Masisi, at the High Level Consultative Council (HLCC) yielded some light at the end of the tunnel for foreign investors, who have suffered from arbitrary refusals and repudiations of work and residence permits. Investors regularly had to pack their bags and relocate to other countries such as South Africa, leaving a few hundred Batswana employees in the lurch, often because their spouses and children would not be given permits for whatever reason. Masisi revealed that his Cabinet has decided to make adjustments on Botswana’s immigration position. He stated that employers and investors who have been struggling with visas and permits “will now be facilitated with speed and efficiently” READ HERE >> and READ HERE >>.
Should Botswana be able to develop new policies and procedures related to work permits it certainly will assist the country to attract garment and home textile manufacturing investors that want to supply the regional market place. Of course its not only about how speedily Botswana permits are issued – it will also be about the number of permits investors will be entitled to, and policies related to renewals of existing permits.

Botswana’s proximity to South Africa’s economic heartland of Johannesburg and Pretoria, and its low wage rates, would be a major drawcard for apparel investors setting-up in Gaborone and Selebi Phikwe. Some African states, with textiles and apparel ambitions, will do themselves an immense favour if they were to implement policies and procedures to make obtaining work (and the associated residence) permits an easier exercise. Countries like Kenya, Lesotho, Ethiopia and Mauritius have done this - and other could learn from them.

Cotton production in Côte d'Ivoire rose by 25%, from 328,000 tonnes in the 2016-17 season to 412,000 tonnes in 2017-18. Yields rose by 30%, helped mainly by favourable weather, and better seed, fertiliser and pesticides and land use READ HERE >>.

TOGO – COTTON CROP, 30 May 2018
Togolese government has announced that the country’s cotton production during the 2017/18 season increased 8% to 117,000 tonnes. This fell short of a 125,000 tonne target. The harvest was hurt by poor rainfall - but the unusually low yields were offset by a sharp increase in the land under cultivation. The price paid to farmers was increased to 260 CFA francs (US$0.4472) per kg during the course of the season from 240 CFA francs (US$0.43) READ HERE >>.



The United States’ Trade Preferences Extension Act (June 2015) READ HERE >>, in addition to providing for the extension of AGOA until September 2025, specified (see: s107) that AGOA eligible countries should produce biennially AGOA utilisation strategies. The same legislation also provides, in order to promote greater regional integration, that regional economic communities (e.g. SADC, EAC, COMESA, SACU) could also develop AGOA utilisation strategies.

US lawmakers stated that the strategies, which should be published on a web site, should identify strategic needs and priorities to bolster the utilisation of AGOA benefits. They specifically directed the strategies should include: i) a review of potential exports under AGOA and identify opportunities and obstacles to increased trade and investment and enhanced poverty reduction efforts; ii) identify obstacles to regional integration that inhibit utilization of benefits under AGOA; and, iii) set out a plan to take advantage of identified opportunities and address obstacles.

In the almost 3 years since the AGOA amendment came into force surprisingly few strategies have been finalised by the 40 states currently eligible for AGOA trade privileges; nor for any regional strategies. This is remarkable considering that the US Agency for International Development's (USAID) funded trade and investment Hubs (in West Africa Trade Hub – closed in January 2018; in East Africa Trade & Investment Hub; and, in Southern Africa Trade & Investment Hub www.satradehub.org) have generally seen themselves as the authorities on AGOA, and who also generally have dedicated technical resources in the form of AGOA advisors.

The absence of regional AGOA strategies is bizarre, from a clothing and textile perspective, because if these were developed they may substantially strengthen intra-regional African trade links which in turn would strengthen African firms theoughout the value chain. For example it would be good for US orientated garment production units in Lesotho to know who could, in the region, supply them with sewing threads, buttons, tapes, interlinings, lables, fabrics, value add services, etc. This could mean the development of a directory of core regional producers and services providers.

The following strategies have been prepared after the AGOA amendment legislation specified these strategies should be developed (few have appeared on any national government website).

Madagascar National AGOA Strategy”. Prepared by USAID’s prime contractor for the East Africa Trade & Investment Hub - Development Alternatives Incorporated (DAI). (April 2015) – this was finalised immediately before the AGOA amendment legislation.

Rwanda AGOA Action Plan”. Prepared by USAID’s prime contractor for the East Africa Trade & Investment Hub - Development Alternatives Incorporated (DAI). (April 2016) - pages 40-9 specifically deal with home décor/textiles/apparel.

National AGOA Strategy for the United Republic of Tanzania”. Prepared by USAID’s prime contractor for the East Africa Trade & Investment Hub - Development Alternatives Incorporated (DAI). (May 2016) – pages 23-8 specifically deals with the clothing industry. [See below - under "RESEARCH" for larger summary.]

The Response Strategy for Lesotho”. Prepared by Peete Molapo, and funded by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. (June 2016).

AGOA National Response Strategy for Ghana”. Prepared by the Dexis Consulting Group for the US Agency for International Development. (November 2016).

National AGOA Response Strategy for Botswana”. Facilitated by the Botswana Ministry of Investment, Trade & Industry with assistance from the USAID Southern Africa Trade & Investment Hub. (September 2017).

Mozambique National AGOA Utilisation Strategy 2018-2025”. Author unknown. (May 2018).


AGOA strategies have been developed for Mali (June 2016 – in French), Togo (August 2017), and Zambia (March 2016) but they do not touch upon textiles / apparel production.



30 MAY 2018

Specifically on Apparel (pg 141-6)
US apparel imports from SSA grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.5% during 2010–16, from $795.2m in 2010 to over $1.0bn in 2016, when such imports accounted for about 1.2% of all U.S. apparel imports from the world. Kenya, Lesotho, Mauritius, and Madagascar accounted for over 90% of all apparel imports from SSA in 2016. Among the five largest exporters of apparel to the US, Ethiopia and Tanzania experienced the fastest growth rates during the period - 63.8% and 33.3%, respectively.

The report has a specific focus on the trade and investment opportunities with regards Cameroon, Côte d'Ivore, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mauritius, Nigeria and South Africa.

The full report can be accessed HERE >>.
TO THE REST OF THE WORLD - 2014–2016 (in US$)
Source: Comtrade Trade Data Base

While some of the products listed above are detailed as being exports from Tanzania this may not mean that some of the products are of Tanzania origin. It may be the case that goods are imported into Tanzania and cleared (duties paid in Tanzania) and then they are re-exported into other parts of the East African Community (EAC) customs union; or into other neighbouring states that are members of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) – for example like Mozambique, Malawi or the D.R. Congo.

Its also likely to be the case that some of the trade data is wrong. This could be a result of some exporters/importers using the wrong Harmonised System (HS) tariff codes; while in some cases customs officers may have inputted the wrong HS codes.

While Tanzania is known for its cotton production (and associated textile factories) – it grows a substantial amount of other textile fibers and has factories which converts these up into basic textile products which are then exported from Tanzania.

One of Tanzania’s larger textile exports falls under category HS53 (“vegetable textile fibres”). In 2016 the largest sub-contributors of exports in this category were:
  • HS5303 - Jute and other textile bast fibres (not flax, true hemp and ramie), raw or processed but not spun; tow and waste of these fibres, including yarn waste and garneted stock exports worth US$3,1m. The largest purchaser was Saudi Arabia.
  • HS5304 - Sisal and other textile fibres of the genus Agave, raw or processed exports worth US$2,6m. The largest purchaser was the Philippines.
  • HS5305 - Coconut, abaca (Manila hemp or Musa textilis Nee), ramie and other vegetable textile fibres n.e.c., raw or processed but not spun; tow, noils and waste of these fibres (including yarn waste and garneted stock) exports worth US$27,4m. The largest purchasers were China, followed by Saudi Arabia and India.

Another important contributor to the Tanzania economy are products listed under category HS56 (“wadding, felt & nonwovens; special yarns, twine, cordage, ropes/cables & articles thereof”). In 2016 Tanzania exported US$4,1m worth of HS5607 - twine, cordage, ropes and cables, whether or not plaited or braided; whether or not impregnated, coated, covered or sheathed with rubber or plastics). Much of this would be have been sisal products. The largest purchaser of these products was Japan.

on Sisal
See this short Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO) research report (2013) on the Tanzania sisal value chain HERE >>. Important Tanzania sisal producers are: METL Sisal, SFI Tanzania, Katani Tanzania, and Marungu Plantation.

Tanzania: Cotton, Textile & Apparel Sector Investment Profile”. Formulated by the Tanzania Investment Centre (TIC) produced under the framework of Supporting Indian Trade & Investment for Africa (SITA) project (funded by the UK’s Department for International Development) a project implemented by the International Trade Centre. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 2016.

Synopsis: This publication is been used to entice textile and apparel investors to consider establishing manufacturing operations in Tanzania. The full investment promotion brief can be READ HERE >>.

Sourcing and Investment Opportunities in Tanzania for Textile & Apparel Businesses”. Prepared by the Tanzania Ministry of Trade, Industry & Investment’s Textile Development Unit (TDU) – with financial support from the Gatsby Trust. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 2017.

Synopsis: This publication is been used to entice textile and apparel investors to consider establishing manufacturing operations in Tanzania. The full investment brief can be READ HERE >>.

National AGOA Strategy for the United Republic of Tanzania”. Prepared by Development Alternatives Incorporated (DAI), for the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. May 2016.

Synopsis: During consultations between the East African Community (EAC) ministers of trade, industry, finance and investment and the United States (US) trade representatives held on 15 February 2015 each EAC Partner State agreed to develop its own national AGOA strategy. The objective of the strategies are to guide the region in developing specific sectors and products for export to the US market to increase trade under the AGOA preference.

The Tanzania National AGOA Strategy supports trade-related public and private sector players to maximise their utilisation of the benefits provided by AGOA. It outlines key sectors and product categories on which Tanzania should focus to increase its trade with the US. With the enactment of the AGOA Extension & Enhancement Act (AEEA), 2015 to 2025, Tanzania is, apparently, poised to fully reap its benefits. A key benefit is the third-country fabric provision, which allows eligible African countries to use fabrics from anywhere in the world in garments destined for the US. Pages 23-28 of the Tanzania strategy specifically deal with textiles and apparel. The full strategy can be READ HERE >>.
  • Source Africa - Trade Show - 20-21 June 2018. Cape Town, South Africa. For more information: www.sourceafrica.co.za
  • 14th Symposium of the Southern & East Africa Cotton Forum - Workshop - 4-6 July 2018. Harare, Zimbabwe. For more information: SEACF
  • Apparel Sourcing New York - Trade Show - 23-25 July 2018. New York, United States. For more information: www.apparel-sourcing-usa.us
  • Sourcing at Magic - Trade Show - 12-15 August 2018. Las Vegas, United States. For more information: www.ubmfashion.com
  • International Textile Manufacturers' Federation (ITMF) - Annual Conference - 7-9 September 2018. Nairobi, Kenya. For more information: www.itmf.org
  • Origin Africa – Trade Show - 9-11 September 2018. Nairobi, Kenya. For more information: www.originafrica.org
  • Apparel Sourcing Paris - Trade Show - 17-20 September 2018. Paris, France. For more information: www.apparelsourcing.fr.messefrankfurt.com
  • Africa Sourcing & Fashion Week (ASFW) - Trade Show - 1-4 October 2018. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. For more information: www.asfw-online.com
  • Textile Exchange Sustainability Conference - Annual Conference - 22-24 October 2018. Milan, Italy. For more Information: www.textileexchange.org
  • Destination Africa - Trade Show - 17-19 November 2018. Cairo, Egypt. For more information: www.destination-africa.org
  • ATF Expo - Trade Show - 20-23 November 2018. Cape Town, South Africa. For more information: www.atfexpo.co.za
  • 77th Plenary Meeting - International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) - Annual Conference - 2-7 December 2018. Abidjan, Ivory Coast. For more information: www.icac.org
Looking for staff? Want to engage a consultant? Have equipment to sell? Do you need 2nd hand machinery? Have a tender? For a limited period the "African Cotton, Textiles & Apparel Monitor" will publish (free of charge) select classified advertisements from firms / development organisations active in the Africa's crop to shop value chain. Adverts limited to 50 words / 300 characters (and may include a mini logo).

The appointee will, working with key stakeholders, diagnose the current situation of the factory and then design/execute a turnaround strategy. The work will include a corporate strategy diagnosis to identify where the factory can improve, and the development of subsequent courses of action to make the factory profitable in the long-term. For 3 months the appointee will diagnose problems and develop a strategy; in the following 9 months he/she will roll-out approved actions. The appointee may, with prior approval, hire additional experts. Deadline for applications is 15 June 2018. For full details contact: info@equiception.net
about Mark Bennett - Editor
"The African Cotton, Textiles & Apparel Monitor"
I have almost 30 years' experience working in Africa's cotton, textiles and apparel value chain. Initially I was, for 15 years, a sector trade unionist in South Africa; then, from 2004 onwards, I worked as a development consultant for various Southern / Eastern African governments, and domestic private sectors. In my development activities I have been engaged by private sector foundations, and by DFID and USAID funded contractors. I find it rewarding creating development interventions that help cotton, textiles and apparel stakeholders to better processes, improve productivity, increase sales and add investment. See my full CV at Devex or LinkedIn.
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